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The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and impact of sexual and genital hygienie practices and socio-demographic characteristics in non pregnant women of Zanjan province in Iran. This is a descriptive-analytic study conducted among non-pregnant referred to primry healthcare centres in Zanjan between May to August Following gynecological examination and vaginal sample collection by physicians, bacterial vaginosis was confirmed by Nugent criteria, tricomoniasis by direct microscopy and candidiasis by direct microscopic observation and evaluation of presenting clinical signs of vulvovaginitis.
The prevalence of RTI was Out of which No significant correlation was observed between age, age of marriage and abortion. The data obtained suggests that the prevalence rate of BV is relatively high and could be affected by hygiene behaviors and certain socio-demographic characteristics, which indicate the need for comprehensive, scheduled programs of healthcare educations, aimed at reducing BV prevalence.
Data from epidemiological surveys show that within countries and between countries in the same region, the prevalence and incidence of genital tract infections may vary widely even in similar population groups. Since it has now been excluded from the ranks of sexually transmitted diseases and is also not Horny grils at dutch in CERGY notifiable Woman for oral sex in Zanjan, not much information regarding its incidence and epidemiology is available.
Prior to the initiation of the experiment, study protocols were reviewed and approved by the ethical committee from the research office of Zanjan University of Medical Science. Declaration of Helsinki was considered in this Woman for oral sex in Zanjan. Out of 10 primary healthcare centers in Zanjan, 5 were randomly selected and in each selected center, non pregnant married women, between the ages of 15 - 45 mean age 36 yearswere randomly recruited.
Primary healthcare centers are evenly situated in different parts of the Zanjan city and are managed under direct supervision of the Zanjan University of Medical Science and most of the people prefer to consult at these centers for charge free health and medical services. A standardized questionnaire elicited sexual and hygiene behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. The purpose of the study was explained Woman for oral sex in Zanjan all eligible women and with their permission; interviews were conducted in complete privacy.
Under supervision of in - charge midwife of present study, and an attendant physician at Woman for oral sex in Zanjan primary healthcare center, conducted the required gynaecological examinations and sampling.
Swab samples were collected for Gram stain, wet mount preparation and determination of pH, by a pH indicator paper pH indicator strips; Merck Laboratories, Darmstadt, Germany. For diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal smear slides were heat fixed, Gram-stained and examined under oil immersion objective x magnification and graded as per standardized, quantitative, morphological classification method developed by Nugent et al.
Spores, hyphae, or yeast buds identified on wet mount confirm the diagnosis. The addition of potassium hydroxide to the wet mount slide will remove debris that may obscure the hyphae, and assists in making an accurate diagnosis.
Trichomoniasis was diagnosed by visualisation of motile trichomonads in the wet mount smear, immediately after sampling. All Laboratory assessments were performed by microbiologists. With the help of SPSS Statistical Package for social Sciences, Version 11 software package, the data was analyzed, using X 2 tests, to test the significance of associations between categorical variables.
The overall prevalence of women with one RTI was Using wet reparation microscopy, 6. Hygiene-related variables were divided in to three categories of menstrual, individual vaginal and coital hygiene. In contrast, no significant correlation was observed between BV and coital hygiene.
Socio-demographic characteristics include Slut in Kibale, age of marriage, educational background, method of contraception, number of pregnancy and history of abortion.
Literacy was divided in to 5 groups ; illiterate, primary, secondary, higher secondary and college graduate, in which Oral contraception, condom, intra uterine contraceptive device IUDsexual interruption and tubectomy were the most popular methods of contraception employed by the participants, in which Those who had pregnancy, showed The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of BV among women attending primery healthcare centers in the Zanjan province, Iran and to relate this to sexual and vaginal hygiene behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics.
In a study conducted in the rural area Woman for oral sex in Zanjan Shandong province in China, the prevalence of BV, trichomoniasis and candidiasis were 6.
Therefore, it is important to try to establish a correlation between BV and factors affecting its prevalence. In this study, menstrual, personal and coital hygiene were the hygiene-related variables. Consistent with other studies, there was a significant correlation between individual and menstrual hygiene and prevalence of BV, whereas Woman for oral sex in Zanjan findings showed no significant correlation in this regard. Data showed that among different methods of contraception employed in the current study, IUD was most commonly used but the use of condoms was relatively low.
However, as compare to condom, BV was diagnosed significantly more frequent in women with IUD, which is in line with other studies. In contrast to other findings, no significant correlation Woman for oral sex in Zanjan observed between BV and number of abortion in this study. Therefore, no significant correlation can be deduced, partly, due to incorrect information in this regard.
No significant Woman for oral sex in Zanjan was found between BV and the age at marriage. Intact hymen is a traditional sign of virginity in Iran, particularly in the Muslim community, and it should be maintained, somehow until marriage.
That is why the age at marriage is considered as the first intercourse in present study population. There are certain limitations in this study. Firstly, since the risk factors were self reported, it is possible that there was under reporting and misclassification of risk behaviors. Secondly, the survey involved the collection of temporally distant and sensitive sexual and hygiene behaviors, therefore, there is a possibility of measurement error that may lead to residual confounding associations.
In conclusion, this study could provide important epidemiologic data on BV for future risk behaviors and population based studies. The data suggests that the prevalence rate of BV was relatively high and it was affected by hygiene behaviors and certain sociodemographic characteristics, which indicate the need for comprehensive, Woman for oral sex in Zanjan programs of healthcare educations, aimed at reducing BV prevalence as well as to guide the planning and resource allocation of decision makers for future interventions.
The authors acknowledge the grant sponsored by Zanjan university of medical science and are also grateful to the participants and physicians and personnel support from Medical healthcare centers.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Oman Med J v. Find articles by Amini Bahram. Find articles by Baghchesaraie Hamid. Find articles by Torabi Zohre. Woman for oral sex in Zanjan information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jun 12; Accepted Aug 9. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Methods non-pregnant, married women were randomly selected for this study. Results The prevalence of RTI was Conclusion The data obtained suggests that the prevalence rate of BV is relatively high and could be affected by hygiene behaviors and certain socio-demographic characteristics, which indicate the need for comprehensive, scheduled programs of healthcare educations, aimed at reducing BV prevalence.
Introduction Data from epidemiological surveys show that within countries and between countries in the same region, Woman for oral sex in Zanjan prevalence and incidence of genital tract infections may vary widely even in similar population groups.
Methods Prior to the initiation of the experiment, study protocols were reviewed and approved by the ethical committee from the research office of Zanjan University of Medical Science. Results married non pregnant women, aged between Woman for oral sex in Zanjan and 45 mean age 36 yearswere enrolled in the study.
Table 1 Frequency distribution of menstrual hygiene. Open in a separate window. Table 2 frequency d istribution of individual hygiene. Performance In negative BV individuals In positive BV individuals Individual vaginal hygiene criteria always sometime never always sometime never X 2 1-Regular underwear changing Table 3 Frequency distribution of coital hygiene.
Performance In negative BV individuals In positive BV individuals Coital hygiene criteria always sometime never always sometime never X 2 1-Genital douching before intercourse Discussion The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of BV among women attending primery healthcare centers in the Zanjan province, Iran and to relate this to sexual and vaginal hygiene behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics.
Conclusion In conclusion, this study could provide important epidemiologic data on BV for future risk behaviors and population based studies. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the grant sponsored by Zanjan university of medical science and are also grateful to the participants and physicians and personnel support from Medical healthcare centers.
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The Internet Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive Nigerian women.: Methods for detection of trichomonas vaginalis in the male partners of infected women: Clin Microbiol ; Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia, West Africa.
BMC Infect Dis ; 5: Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and vaginal flora changes in peri- and postmenopausal women. J Clin Microbiol Etiology, diagnosis, and management of vaginitis. J Midwifery Womens Health Prevalence of and factors associated with reproductive tract infections among pregnant women in ten communes in Nghe An Province, Vietnam. Prevalence and risk factors of trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis for married women of child-bearing age in rural Shandong.
Jpn J Infect Dis Shobeiri F, Nazari M.
non-pregnant, married women were randomly selected for this study. Out of 10 primary healthcare centers in Zanjan, 5 were randomly selected and in each selected center, . Oral contraception, condom, intra uterine contraceptive device (IUD), sexual interruption and tubectomy were . Sex Transm Infect Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which .. Frequency of Genital Involvement in Women with Oral Lichen Planus in of 4 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province . This was a quasi-experimental study that was carried out in Zanjan, northwest of Iran. . Currently, there is no sex education in public health centers of Iran, and . erotic massage, manual stimulation of the genitalia, kissing, oral stimulation.