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Female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative estrogen deficiency. This literature review aims to validate or falsify this hypothesis, i.
The literature search was performed on PubMed on January 2, The following criteria were taken to include the papers for synthetic analysis: I only English primary literatures on nonspecific pain; II only prospective studies on general population, but not population with occupational LBP causes, of both males and female subjects studied using the same LBP criterion, ages-specific information available, and males and female subjects were age-matched; III studies without major quality flaws.
In total 98 studies withsubjects were analyzed. According to the information in the literature, participant subjects were divided into four age groups: I school age children group: When individual studies were not weighted by participant number and each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size, the median LBP prevalence ratio of female vs.
When individual studies were weighted by participant number, the LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. The higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school age boys is likely due to psychological factors, female hormone fluctuation, and menstruation. Compared with young and middle aged subjects, a further increased LBP prevalence in females than in males was noted after menopause age. Low back pain LBP is usually defined as pain, muscle tension, or stiffness localized below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds, with or without leg pain sciatica.
It is a disorder with many possible etiologies, with many definitions, and occurring in many groups of populations. The vast literature available on prevalence of LBP Woman for oral sex in General Conesa not only heterogeneous, but also sometimes contradictory. This variability may be due to differences among study factors such as the age of the sample, the definition of LBP, and the strategy for extracting data. The prevalence can be described in terms such as point Woman for oral sex in General Conesa the number of persons in a defined population who have LBP at a particular point in time, usually the time the survey was carried outperiod prevalence the number of persons who have LBP at any time during a specified time intervaland lifetime prevalence the number of persons who have LBP at some points in their life.
There may be also cultural differences in the pain perception or reporting, with some ethnic minorities having the attitude that pain is to be endured without complaint 8 The overall prevalence of LBP is higher in women than in men 12 Women are also affected by many chronic pain conditions and painful conditions of the musculoskeletal system in greater numbers than men are A biopsychosocial model of chronic pain attributes sex differences in pain to interactions between biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors 15 The heightened pain sensitivity among women can also partially explain greater reports of pain by women compared to men 17 Menstrual cycle fluctuations in pain sensitivity may help to explain sex differences in pain reporting in younger adults Biologic response to pregnancy and childbearing, physical stress of child-rearing, perimenopausal abdominal weight gain are additional causes for LBP Population-based studies have shown that the prevalence of widespread pain increases with age, peaking in the seventh and eighth decades 20 Recently, it has been show that genetics also played a role in the development of LBP 122Woman for oral sex in General Conesa Lumbar disc degeneration and its associated changes such as disc space narrowing are related to LBP Lumbar disc degeneration is a common musculoskeletal condition, the prevalence of which increases with age Woman for oral sex in General Conesa - Disc degeneration can progress to disk herniation, spinal canal stenosis, and, in conjunction with facet joint arthrosis, degenerative spondylolisthesis.
In an analysis of published data of autopsy specimens of young and middle-aged subjects younger than 50 Woman for oral sex in General Conesa, intervertebral disc degeneration was observed in men in the second decade of life, occurring at an earlier age than in women; the severity of age matched disk degeneration was also being generally greater in men Disc degeneration became first readily apparent during the 2nd decade of life, though it was observed to occur in men almost a decade earlier than in women.
In a MR imaging-based survey of young adults 20—22 years, lumbar disc degeneration was significantly more frequent in men These results confirm the general perception that young men are more susceptible to disc degeneration than young women are, most likely due to increased mechanical stress and physical injury. However, after menopause which is around the age of 49—50 years, lumbar discs in females degenerate at a notably quicker rate than male lumbar discs in males, after later 50s, disc space narrowing become more apparent and more severe than age matched males Woman for oral sex in General Conesa - Based on these backgrounds, we propose a hypothesis, i.
This is partially related to the accelerated lumbar disc degeneration and spine degeneration after female menopause 31 - In this study we performed a literature review to look at whether this male vs.
This search generated 2, paper titles. The titles and abstracts of these papers, and sometimes full papers when required, were screened, and the following criteria were used to include the papers for further synthetic analysis:. Each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size.
Each individual study is weighted by their sample size, and studies at each age-specific group are summed together. This study demonstrated females had higher prevalence of Woman for oral sex in General Conesa across all age groups. Compared with middle aged subjects, a further increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males was noted after menopause age.
Among all chronic pain problems and spinal pain conditions, LBP is the most common and important clinical, social, economic, and public health problem affecting the population indiscriminately across the world 8. LBP is known to be of multi-factorial causes Woman for oral sex in General Conesa34 Employment and workplace factors, both physical and psychological, such as heavy lifting, pushing, pulling, vehicle driving, and prolonged walking or standing were found to be predictors of LBP and there are similar associations with stressful and monotonous work and dissatisfaction with work.
Body mass index has been found to be linked to LBP in obese people Associations between LBP and Woman for oral sex in General Conesa class, low levels of educational and low income have been reported. Persons with greater education are more likely to be in professional, managerial, or other skilled occupations where there is more flexibility to eliminate pain-provoking job situations and physical demand 4 Compared with a lower or a higher frequency of exercise, a moderate frequency of exercise from one to five times a week was associated with a lower LBP risk level 4.
LBP has been reported consistently in a higher proportion of females than males 34121338 Our synthetic analysis further confirmed this phenomenon. Gender prevalence ratios also revealed a higher prevalence of pain in females for headache, migraine, temporomandibular pain, burning mouth pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, back pain, knee pain, abdominal pain, and fibromyalgia 8.
Women have shown to have a lower threshold of perception of pain and in reaction to it 40 Several authors have observed that although females are more likely to report symptoms, physician verified abnormalities are approximately equal to those of males 42 However, occupational LBP is seen in higher proportions in men 44 Some data suggested LBP prevalence increased in the recent years 8 It could be that the actual prevalence has not changed but the reporting has; or it could be that the questions used to assess the prevalence have changed; or LBP prevalence really increased due to life style changes of the population.
Chronic pain is a common symptom and significant problem for older adults. Further, age related prevalence of persistent pain appears to Woman for oral sex in General Conesa much more common in the elderly associated with functional limitations and difficulty in performing daily life activities. In an evaluation of pain characteristics of adults 65 years of age and older referred to a tertiary pain care clinic, the older patients had relatively more physical problems concordant with their complaints, but fewer psychological factors contributing to disability than the younger pain patients On the other hand, we expect the higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school aged boys is more likely due to psychological factors, female hormone fluctuation, and menstruation.
That post menopausal women has higher incidence of LBP than men has been reported distinctively in a number of studies. In those with pain at the time of the survey the incidence had raised till age 40 in males and then remained constant, but in females it continued to rise sharply up Woman for oral sex in General Conesa and over the age of 65 Figure S1A. It was suggested a number of women might have experienced back pain in connection with the biological processes associated with the menses.
However, when age controls were introduced, Nagi et al. InPapageorgiou et al. The 1-month period prevalence of LBP was The LBP prevalence was InCho et al. Estrogen participates in a variety of biological processes through different molecular mechanisms. The collagen wasting is commonly observed in bone and skin in the postmenopausal period due to decreased estrogen levels 54 Estrogen has favorable effects on Woman for oral sex in General Conesa lipid profile, antioxidant activity, and enhanced fibrinolysis Estrogen may reduce the risk for arteriosclerosis, which has been considered a risk factor for LBP Estrogen plays an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases.
The prevalence of osteoarthritis OA is higher among women than among men, and this prevalence increases considerably after menopause 58 Moreover, with the same degree of radiographic damage, OA is also more symptomatic in women 58 After menopause women have more severe disc space narrowing than age matched men 2829 This may be associated with the physiological changes caused by relatively lower level of sex hormones after menopause in women, and the accelerated lumbar disc Slut in Saskatoon The expert views of hormone replacement treatment HRT evolved during the last 10 years since the publication of WHI trials 61Woman for oral sex in General Conesa Dose regimen, combination of estrogen with progestins versus estrogen alone, the administration route and duration of treatment such as the choice Text n fuck repetitive or periodic administration simulating the menstrual cycle are some of the factors that may be involved in the benefit discrepancies.
The Estrogen and Thromboembolism Risk ESTHER study confirmed that oral estrogens increased venous thromboembolism risk, whereas transdermal estrogens had little or no impact on the development of thrombosis The presence of gene polymorphisms may also be Bbw party salt in Singapore. HRT may benefit a large number of postmenopausal women, but a subset of women may Woman for oral sex in General Conesa higher risk of cardiovascular and thrombotic complications Estrogen receptor modulators and phytoestrogens may retain the desired effects but avoid undesirable effects HRT has been shown to be protective against menopause-associated OA 66 However, in one study Musgrave et al.
An in-depth understanding of the role of the gonadal hormones in LBP modulation remains unclear; whether HRT is useful for patients with severe LBP warrants further studies.
There are a number of limitations for the current study. Only English literatures were included in this review, and only database of PubMed was used. There was a lack of a universal definition and delimitation of LBP and the absence of important specifications of LBP such as the frequency of episodes, its intensity and duration in some studies; therefore we reported the ratio of female vs. The LBP in survey subjects are assumed to be nonspecific.
Specific LBP is due to organic diseases that include spinal fractures, cancers, infections, and cauda equina syndrome can be identified. This study also did not establish an exact causal role of accelerated spine degeneration in post-menopausal women for Woman for oral sex in General Conesa increased LBP prevalence.
Our literature review is likely not being exhaustive; however, we believe this limitation is unlikely to have impact on the conclusion of our study. In conclusion, our synthetic literature review demonstrated females had higher prevalence of LBP across all age groups. Clarification of the hormonal influences on pain modulation will advance our understanding of sex differences in clinical pain conditions such as LBP. The evidence showed in this study may open a new line of further clinical researches.
Services: Cum in mouth, Smoking (Fetish), Massage anti-stress, Spanking (giving ), Female Ejaculation, Sub Games, Sex oral without condom, Parties in. Female sex hormones play an important role in the aetiology and . The Estrogen and Thromboembolism Risk study confirmed that oral oestrogens increased . Calvo-Muñoz I., Gómez-Conesa A., Sánchez-Meca J. Prevalence of low back pain the prevalence of low back pain in the general population. María Teresa García-Conesa of Spanish National Research Council, Madrid Targets Responsive to the Probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 in Women With Oral administration of certain strains of lactobacilli isolated from human milk has Through subgroup analyses, we showed the influence of baseline-BMI, sex.